 Work and Energy Introduction Work verses Energy Examples Chapter 8B - - Work and Energy A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University A PowerPoint Presentation by

## вЂЋWork and Energy on Apple Books

UNIT 10 WORK AND ENERGY SFU.ca. CBSE Class 6 Physics - Work - Energy (6) Worksheets have become an integral part of the education system. Worksheets are very critical for every student to practice his/ her concepts., In this module, you will learn the fundamentals of WORK, POWER and ENERGY and their applications in everyday simple machines. The terms work, power and energy are often used in our daily conversations but have different meanings in Physics. This module will give specific scientific meanings and explanations to these terms..

Here we learn what work and energy mean in physics and how they are related. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. Lesson 37: Work & Energy The everyday definition of вЂњworkвЂќ and the one that we use in physics are quite different from each other. When most people think about вЂњworkвЂќ they think of the job that they have.

Energy is our way for accounting for things in Physics. There are two main types: 'kinetic' which is the energy a body possesses by virtue of its motion, and 'potential' вЂ¦ work enegy power exam physics work and energy exam problems work, energy, power exam work power energy exam 1and problem solutons work energy problem with solution problem solutions on work and energy works , power and problems and solustions exam on work and power dynamics - work and energy problems work,energy and power board exam problems exam in work and power mnstateedu physics exam work

Work, Power and Energy General Knowledge Work, Power and Energy related important General knowledge and basic concept with definition for UPSE, IAS, SSC CGL, MTS, Railway, Banking and other competitive exams. In general sense work means any kind of physical and mental activity. Someone study very hard in his study room to get good marks [вЂ¦] CBSE Class 6 Physics - Work - Energy (6) Worksheets have become an integral part of the education system. Worksheets are very critical for every student to practice his/ her concepts.

1. Energy and Power and the physics of explosions Comet Shoemaker-Levy crashes into Jupiter1 At the end of the Cretaceous period, the golden age of dinosaurs, an Physics 1120: Work & Energy Solutions Energy 1. In the diagram below, the spring has a force constant of 5000 N/m, the block has a mass of 6.20 kg, and the height h of the hill is 5.25 m. Determine the compression of the spring such that the block just makes it to the top of the hill. Assume that there are no nonВ­conservative forces involved.

The concepts of work and energy are closely tied to the concept of force because an applied force can do work on an object and cause a change in energy. Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Acting force changing with position. In this example, the total work accomplished is (1/2)(15)(3 9 Science notes Chapter 11 Work and Energy. Download CBSE class 9th revision notes for Chapter 11 Work and Energy in PDF format for free. Download revision notes for Work and Energy class 9 Notes and score high in exams. These are the Work and Energy class 9 Notes prepared by team of expert teachers. The revision notes help you revise the whole

Here we learn what work and energy mean in physics and how they are related. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. work enegy power exam physics work and energy exam problems work, energy, power exam work power energy exam 1and problem solutons work energy problem with solution problem solutions on work and energy works , power and problems and solustions exam on work and power dynamics - work and energy problems work,energy and power board exam problems exam in work and power mnstateedu physics exam work

using the concepts of work and energy. In physics, work is defined as a force acting upon an object, which results in a displacement of the object. Work is a familiar everyday concept. For example, it takes work to push a stalled car, lift a book above the table, or open a door. Force and displacement are the two essential elements of work The terms вЂworkвЂ™, вЂenergyвЂ™ and вЂpowerвЂ™ are frequently used in everyday language. A farmer ploughing the field, a construction worker carrying bricks, a student studying for a competitive examination, an artist painting a beautiful landscape, all are said to be working. In physics, however,

Work and Energy Physics 1425 Lecture 12 Michael Fowler, UVa . What is Work and What IsnвЂ™t? вЂў In physics, work has a very restricted meaning! вЂў Doing homework isnвЂ™t work. вЂў Carrying somebody a mile on a level road isnвЂ™t workвЂ¦ вЂў Lifting a stick of butter three feet is workвЂ”in fact, about one unit of work. Work is only done by a force вЂ¦ вЂў and, the force has to move something Chapter 6 Work, Energy And Power Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 physics (Link of Pdf file is given below at the end of the Questions List) In this pdf file you can see answers of following Questions NCERT Solutions Exercises Questions . Question 6.1 The sign of work done by a force on a body is important to understand. State carefully if

Work, Power and Energy General Knowledge Work, Power and Energy related important General knowledge and basic concept with definition for UPSE, IAS, SSC CGL, MTS, Railway, Banking and other competitive exams. In general sense work means any kind of physical and mental activity. Someone study very hard in his study room to get good marks [вЂ¦] Chapter 6 Work, Energy And Power Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 physics (Link of Pdf file is given below at the end of the Questions List) In this pdf file you can see answers of following Questions NCERT Solutions Exercises Questions . Question 6.1 The sign of work done by a force on a body is important to understand. State carefully if

Chapter 8B - - Work and Energy A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University A PowerPoint Presentation by CBSE Class 9 Physics Worksheet - Work & Energy. Worksheets have become an integral part of the education system. Worksheets are very critical for every student to practice his/ her concepts.

CBSE Class 9 Physics Worksheet Work and Energy Practice. Thanks, dear. ItвЂ™s quite impressive. You have provided all information about work, energy, and power. If you provide more examples and problems on work, energy, and power then it will be a great post., using the concepts of work and energy. In physics, work is defined as a force acting upon an object, which results in a displacement of the object. Work is a familiar everyday concept. For example, it takes work to push a stalled car, lift a book above the table, or open a door. Force and displacement are the two essential elements of work.

### Work and Energy class 9 Notes Science myCBSEguide CBSE Work and Energy University of Virginia. Energy is our way for accounting for things in Physics. There are two main types: 'kinetic' which is the energy a body possesses by virtue of its motion, and 'potential' вЂ¦, CBSE Class 9 Science Notes Chapter 11 Work, Power and Energy Pdf free download is part of Class 9 Science Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Class 9 Science Notes Chapter 11 Work, Power and Energy..

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 6 WORK ENERGY AND POWER. APlusTopper.com provides ICSE Solutions for Class 10 Physics Chapter 1 Force, Work, Power and Energy for ICSE Board Examinations. We provide step by step Solutions for ICSE Physics Class 10 Solutions Pdf., Work and Energy Physics 1425 Lecture 12 Michael Fowler, UVa . What is Work and What IsnвЂ™t? вЂў In physics, work has a very restricted meaning! вЂў Doing homework isnвЂ™t work. вЂў Carrying somebody a mile on a level road isnвЂ™t workвЂ¦ вЂў Lifting a stick of butter three feet is workвЂ”in fact, about one unit of work. Work is only done by a force вЂ¦ вЂў and, the force has to move something.

### WORK POWER AND ENERGY fode.education.gov.pg Work Energy and Power A Level Physics. Physics Practice Problems: Work and Energy Page 1 of 5 Please ignore air resistance, treat all surfaces as frictionless unless otherwise specified or implied. Work and work-energy theorem: 1. A 2kg crate rests on the floor. How much work is required to move it at constant speed Work, Power and Energy General Knowledge Work, Power and Energy related important General knowledge and basic concept with definition for UPSE, IAS, SSC CGL, MTS, Railway, Banking and other competitive exams. In general sense work means any kind of physical and mental activity. Someone study very hard in his study room to get good marks [вЂ¦]. CBSE Class 6 Physics - Work - Energy (6) Worksheets have become an integral part of the education system. Worksheets are very critical for every student to practice his/ her concepts. Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 6 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Work When a force acts on an object and the object actually moves in the direction of force, then the work is said to be done by the force. Work done by the force is equal to the product of the force and вЂ¦

Chapter 6 Work, Energy And Power Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 physics (Link of Pdf file is given below at the end of the Questions List) In this pdf file you can see answers of following Questions NCERT Solutions Exercises Questions . Question 6.1 The sign of work done by a force on a body is important to understand. State carefully if CBSE Class 11 Physics Work-Energy And Power Notes. Work, power, and energy are among the most important concepts of mechanics. A moving car, walking up stairs, lifting heavy objects, an airplane flying, etc are among the most common examples that give us insight into the concept of work, power, and energy.

The concepts of work and energy are closely tied to the concept of force because an applied force can do work on an object and cause a change in energy. Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Acting force changing with position. In this example, the total work accomplished is (1/2)(15)(3 APlusTopper.com provides ICSE Solutions for Class 10 Physics Chapter 1 Force, Work, Power and Energy for ICSE Board Examinations. We provide step by step Solutions for ICSE Physics Class 10 Solutions Pdf.

work enegy power exam physics work and energy exam problems work, energy, power exam work power energy exam 1and problem solutons work energy problem with solution problem solutions on work and energy works , power and problems and solustions exam on work and power dynamics - work and energy problems work,energy and power board exam problems exam in work and power mnstateedu physics exam work вЂў definition of work вЂў definition of kinetic energy в€’> restatement of Newton 2 вЂў conservative and non-conservative forces вЂў potential energy Sometimes, the physics sense of work is very like the use in normal language. This bloke is doing work but the trolley isnвЂ™t doing work. Why not? See Physclips, Work and Energy

Physics 1120: Work & Energy Solutions Energy 1. In the diagram below, the spring has a force constant of 5000 N/m, the block has a mass of 6.20 kg, and the height h of the hill is 5.25 m. Determine the compression of the spring such that the block just makes it to the top of the hill. Assume that there are no nonВ­conservative forces involved. The terms вЂworkвЂ™, вЂenergyвЂ™ and вЂpowerвЂ™ are frequently used in everyday language. A farmer ploughing the field, a construction worker carrying bricks, a student studying for a competitive examination, an artist painting a beautiful landscape, all are said to be working. In physics, however,

4. To understand the concept of kinetic energy and its rela-tionship to work as embodied in the work-energy theorem. 5. To relate experimentally determined kinetic energy loss to frictional loss. 6. To apply concepts involving the conservation of momen-tum, work, and energy вЂ¦ CBSE Class 11 Physics Work-Energy And Power Notes. Work, power, and energy are among the most important concepts of mechanics. A moving car, walking up stairs, lifting heavy objects, an airplane flying, etc are among the most common examples that give us insight into the concept of work, power, and energy.

Lesson 37: Work & Energy The everyday definition of вЂњworkвЂќ and the one that we use in physics are quite different from each other. When most people think about вЂњworkвЂќ they think of the job that they have. Physics Practice Problems: Work and Energy Page 1 of 5 Please ignore air resistance, treat all surfaces as frictionless unless otherwise specified or implied. Work and work-energy theorem: 1. A 2kg crate rests on the floor. How much work is required to move it at constant speed

The concepts of work and energy are closely tied to the concept of force because an applied force can do work on an object and cause a change in energy. Energy is defined as the ability to do work. Acting force changing with position. In this example, the total work accomplished is (1/2)(15)(3 Download free PDF of best NCERT Solutions , Class 9, Physics, CBSE- Work and Energy . All NCERT textbook questions have been solved by our expert teachers. You can also get free sample papers, Notes, Important Questions.

Work and Energy Physics 1425 Lecture 12 Michael Fowler, UVa . What is Work and What IsnвЂ™t? вЂў In physics, work has a very restricted meaning! вЂў Doing homework isnвЂ™t work. вЂў Carrying somebody a mile on a level road isnвЂ™t workвЂ¦ вЂў Lifting a stick of butter three feet is workвЂ”in fact, about one unit of work. Work is only done by a force вЂ¦ вЂў and, the force has to move something Work and Energy Physics 1425 Lecture 12 Michael Fowler, UVa . What is Work and What IsnвЂ™t? вЂў In physics, work has a very restricted meaning! вЂў Doing homework isnвЂ™t work. вЂў Carrying somebody a mile on a level road isnвЂ™t workвЂ¦ вЂў Lifting a stick of butter three feet is workвЂ”in fact, about one unit of work. Work is only done by a force вЂ¦ вЂў and, the force has to move something

4. To understand the concept of kinetic energy and its rela-tionship to work as embodied in the work-energy theorem. 5. To relate experimentally determined kinetic energy loss to frictional loss. 6. To apply concepts involving the conservation of momen-tum, work, and energy вЂ¦ Lesson 37: Work & Energy The everyday definition of вЂњworkвЂќ and the one that we use in physics are quite different from each other. When most people think about вЂњworkвЂќ they think of the job that they have.

In this module, you will learn the fundamentals of WORK, POWER and ENERGY and their applications in everyday simple machines. The terms work, power and energy are often used in our daily conversations but have different meanings in Physics. This module will give specific scientific meanings and explanations to these terms. CBSE Class 9 Physics Worksheet - Work & Energy. Worksheets have become an integral part of the education system. Worksheets are very critical for every student to practice his/ her concepts.

## Work cblakeapphysics1.weebly.com Lesson 37 Work & Energy Studyphysics. Chapter 8B - - Work and Energy A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University A PowerPoint Presentation by, Physics Practice Problems: Work and Energy Page 1 of 5 Please ignore air resistance, treat all surfaces as frictionless unless otherwise specified or implied. Work and work-energy theorem: 1. A 2kg crate rests on the floor. How much work is required to move it at constant speed.

### ICSE Solutions for Class 10 Physics Force Work Power

Work cblakeapphysics1.weebly.com. 4. To understand the concept of kinetic energy and its rela-tionship to work as embodied in the work-energy theorem. 5. To relate experimentally determined kinetic energy loss to frictional loss. 6. To apply concepts involving the conservation of momen-tum, work, and energy вЂ¦, 4. To understand the concept of kinetic energy and its rela-tionship to work as embodied in the work-energy theorem. 5. To relate experimentally determined kinetic energy loss to frictional loss. 6. To apply concepts involving the conservation of momen-tum, work, and energy вЂ¦.

Lesson 37: Work & Energy The everyday definition of вЂњworkвЂќ and the one that we use in physics are quite different from each other. When most people think about вЂњworkвЂќ they think of the job that they have. Here we learn what work and energy mean in physics and how they are related. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

1. Energy and Power and the physics of explosions Comet Shoemaker-Levy crashes into Jupiter1 At the end of the Cretaceous period, the golden age of dinosaurs, an The terms вЂworkвЂ™, вЂenergyвЂ™ and вЂpowerвЂ™ are frequently used in everyday language. A farmer ploughing the field, a construction worker carrying bricks, a student studying for a competitive examination, an artist painting a beautiful landscape, all are said to be working. In physics, however,

Work, Power and Energy General Knowledge Work, Power and Energy related important General knowledge and basic concept with definition for UPSE, IAS, SSC CGL, MTS, Railway, Banking and other competitive exams. In general sense work means any kind of physical and mental activity. Someone study very hard in his study room to get good marks [вЂ¦] CBSE Class 6 Physics - Work - Energy (6) Worksheets have become an integral part of the education system. Worksheets are very critical for every student to practice his/ her concepts.

Chapter 8B - - Work and Energy A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University A PowerPoint Presentation by 6.2 The Work-Energy Theorem and Kinetic Energy Conceptual Example 6 Work and Kinetic Energy A satellite is moving about the earth in a circular orbit and an elliptical orbit. For these two orbits, determine whether the kinetic energy of the satellite changes during the motion.

The terms вЂworkвЂ™, вЂenergyвЂ™ and вЂpowerвЂ™ are frequently used in everyday language. A farmer ploughing the field, a construction worker carrying bricks, a student studying for a competitive examination, an artist painting a beautiful landscape, all are said to be working. In physics, however, Energy is our way for accounting for things in Physics. There are two main types: 'kinetic' which is the energy a body possesses by virtue of its motion, and 'potential' вЂ¦

Thanks, dear. ItвЂ™s quite impressive. You have provided all information about work, energy, and power. If you provide more examples and problems on work, energy, and power then it will be a great post. using the concepts of work and energy. In physics, work is defined as a force acting upon an object, which results in a displacement of the object. Work is a familiar everyday concept. For example, it takes work to push a stalled car, lift a book above the table, or open a door. Force and displacement are the two essential elements of work

Lab 3: Work, Energy & Power Essentials of Physics: PHYS 101 Most of us love the dear old Earth, in fact weвЂ™re quite attracted to it. That attraction arises from the EarthвЂ™s large mass, not the fact that it is spinning. When we lift a book away from the center Download free PDF of best NCERT Solutions , Class 9, Physics, CBSE- Work and Energy . All NCERT textbook questions have been solved by our expert teachers. You can also get free sample papers, Notes, Important Questions.

вЂў definition of work вЂў definition of kinetic energy в€’> restatement of Newton 2 вЂў conservative and non-conservative forces вЂў potential energy Sometimes, the physics sense of work is very like the use in normal language. This bloke is doing work but the trolley isnвЂ™t doing work. Why not? See Physclips, Work and Energy "Energy" is a word that's used a lot. Here, you'll learn about how it's one of the most useful concepts in physics. Along the way, we'll talk about work, kinetic energy, potential energy, conservation of energy, and mechanical advantage.

CBSE Class 9 Science Notes Chapter 11 Work, Power and Energy Pdf free download is part of Class 9 Science Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Class 9 Science Notes Chapter 11 Work, Power and Energy. 1. Energy and Power and the physics of explosions Comet Shoemaker-Levy crashes into Jupiter1 At the end of the Cretaceous period, the golden age of dinosaurs, an

Chapter 8B - - Work and Energy A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University A PowerPoint Presentation by 6.2 The Work-Energy Theorem and Kinetic Energy Conceptual Example 6 Work and Kinetic Energy A satellite is moving about the earth in a circular orbit and an elliptical orbit. For these two orbits, determine whether the kinetic energy of the satellite changes during the motion.

### Work and Energy CliffsNotes Work Power Energy > Important Physics GK [PDF]. CBSE Class 9 Science Notes Chapter 11 Work, Power and Energy Pdf free download is part of Class 9 Science Notes for Quick Revision. Here we have given NCERT Class 9 Science Notes Chapter 11 Work, Power and Energy., Chapter 6: Work, Energy and Power Tuesday February 10th Reading: up to page 88 in the text book (Ch. 6) вЂўFinish NewtonвЂ™s laws and circular motion вЂўEnergy вЂў Work (definition) вЂў Examples of work вЂўWork and Kinetic Energy вЂўConservative and non-conservative forces вЂўWork and Potential Energy вЂўConservation of Energy.

### Chapter 6 Physics UNIT 10 WORK AND ENERGY SFU.ca. Physics Practice Problems: Work and Energy Page 1 of 5 Please ignore air resistance, treat all surfaces as frictionless unless otherwise specified or implied. Work and work-energy theorem: 1. A 2kg crate rests on the floor. How much work is required to move it at constant speed 06/03/2013В В· вЂЋThe Physics Classroom's Work and Energy textbook is the fifth book in its Tutorial Series. The book uses a down-to-earth style and an easy-to-understand language to discuss the work-energy model in a logical manner. Difficult concepts are presented with the help of informative graphics and a вЂ¦. 6.2 The Work-Energy Theorem and Kinetic Energy Conceptual Example 6 Work and Kinetic Energy A satellite is moving about the earth in a circular orbit and an elliptical orbit. For these two orbits, determine whether the kinetic energy of the satellite changes during the motion. "Energy" is a word that's used a lot. Here, you'll learn about how it's one of the most useful concepts in physics. Along the way, we'll talk about work, kinetic energy, potential energy, conservation of energy, and mechanical advantage.

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 6 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Work When a force acts on an object and the object actually moves in the direction of force, then the work is said to be done by the force. Work done by the force is equal to the product of the force and вЂ¦ Chapter 8B - - Work and Energy A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University A PowerPoint Presentation by

Chapter 6: Work, Energy and Power Tuesday February 10th Reading: up to page 88 in the text book (Ch. 6) вЂўFinish NewtonвЂ™s laws and circular motion вЂўEnergy вЂў Work (definition) вЂў Examples of work вЂўWork and Kinetic Energy вЂўConservative and non-conservative forces вЂўWork and Potential Energy вЂўConservation of Energy 6.2 The Work-Energy Theorem and Kinetic Energy Conceptual Example 6 Work and Kinetic Energy A satellite is moving about the earth in a circular orbit and an elliptical orbit. For these two orbits, determine whether the kinetic energy of the satellite changes during the motion.

Lab 3: Work, Energy & Power Essentials of Physics: PHYS 101 Most of us love the dear old Earth, in fact weвЂ™re quite attracted to it. That attraction arises from the EarthвЂ™s large mass, not the fact that it is spinning. When we lift a book away from the center "Energy" is a word that's used a lot. Here, you'll learn about how it's one of the most useful concepts in physics. Along the way, we'll talk about work, kinetic energy, potential energy, conservation of energy, and mechanical advantage.

Chapter 8B - - Work and Energy A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University A PowerPoint Presentation by CBSE Class 6 Physics - Work - Energy (6) Worksheets have become an integral part of the education system. Worksheets are very critical for every student to practice his/ her concepts.

30/09/2017В В· This physics video tutorial provides a basic introduction into solving work and energy physics problems. The first problem asks you to calculate the work required to stop a car using kinetic energy. CBSE Class 6 Physics - Work - Energy (6) Worksheets have become an integral part of the education system. Worksheets are very critical for every student to practice his/ her concepts.

Thanks, dear. ItвЂ™s quite impressive. You have provided all information about work, energy, and power. If you provide more examples and problems on work, energy, and power then it will be a great post. Work, Power and Energy General Knowledge Work, Power and Energy related important General knowledge and basic concept with definition for UPSE, IAS, SSC CGL, MTS, Railway, Banking and other competitive exams. In general sense work means any kind of physical and mental activity. Someone study very hard in his study room to get good marks [вЂ¦]

"Energy" is a word that's used a lot. Here, you'll learn about how it's one of the most useful concepts in physics. Along the way, we'll talk about work, kinetic energy, potential energy, conservation of energy, and mechanical advantage. Here we learn what work and energy mean in physics and how they are related. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.

Work, Power and Energy General Knowledge Work, Power and Energy related important General knowledge and basic concept with definition for UPSE, IAS, SSC CGL, MTS, Railway, Banking and other competitive exams. In general sense work means any kind of physical and mental activity. Someone study very hard in his study room to get good marks [вЂ¦] 06/03/2013В В· вЂЋThe Physics Classroom's Work and Energy textbook is the fifth book in its Tutorial Series. The book uses a down-to-earth style and an easy-to-understand language to discuss the work-energy model in a logical manner. Difficult concepts are presented with the help of informative graphics and a вЂ¦

Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 6 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Work When a force acts on an object and the object actually moves in the direction of force, then the work is said to be done by the force. Work done by the force is equal to the product of the force and вЂ¦ Chapter 6: Work, Energy and Power Tuesday February 10th Reading: up to page 88 in the text book (Ch. 6) вЂўFinish NewtonвЂ™s laws and circular motion вЂўEnergy вЂў Work (definition) вЂў Examples of work вЂўWork and Kinetic Energy вЂўConservative and non-conservative forces вЂўWork and Potential Energy вЂўConservation of Energy Chapter 8B - - Work and Energy A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University A PowerPoint Presentation by 30/09/2017В В· This physics video tutorial provides a basic introduction into solving work and energy physics problems. The first problem asks you to calculate the work required to stop a car using kinetic energy.